A full report of the 15th International scientific and practical conference Digital Age of Culture:
Route of the participants
of the conference
19 – 23 September 2016 there took place 15th jubilee International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” on board a ferryboat “Princess Anastasia”. The ferryboat cruised from St. Petersburg to Helsinki, then Stockholm, then Tallinn, then back to St. Petersburg . The conference was organized by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Library, the National Library of Russia and the Russian Association of Digital Libraries (NPP “ELBI”) supported by the general sponsor Samsung Electronics Rus company.
 
Figure 1. Route of the participants of the conference
Within the framework of the conference, there took place the regular session of the annual scientific and practical conference of the Russian Association of Digital Libraries (NPP “ELBI”).
The scientific agenda of the conference included a plenary meeting, two round – table discussions, one of which was “National Digital Library” and the other one was organized by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
The “Digital Age of Culture” was started 20 September 2016 by the plenary meeting where the head of the Administrative department of management and monitoring service for clients of the RSL N.V.Avdeeva read to the audience a greeting word by the minister of culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky which was addressed to the organizers and participants of the conference. 
 
Greeting word by the minister of culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky which was addressed to the organizers and participants of the 15th Scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”
 
S.A.Kirichenko, representative
of the general sponsor
of the conference “Samsung
Electronics Rus” company
Greeting word by the minister of culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky which was addressed to the organizers and participants of the 15th Scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”
The first speeches to tune the conference were «Welcome to the world of digital culture, or 25 – year – service for Russian society” by a representative of the general sponsor of the conference Samsung Electronics Rus company, head of the project group Sergey Anatoliyevich Kirichenko and “Unifying Electronic Resources of Russian Libraries” by the director general of the National Library of Russia, supervisor of the “National Digital Library” project at the Russian State Library Alexander Ivanovich Visly. 
In his speech devoted to the quarter – century jubilee of work of the Samsung company, Sergey Anatoliyevich gave details on the projects carried out by Samsung Electronics Rus company in collaboration with different establishments of culture and arts, science and education of the Russian Federation, and also touched upon their financial and technical support for the programmes. The speaker marked that by contributing to the development of culture, science and education Samsung Electronics Rus company were trying to create in Russia a solid base for the development of the society in the new digital world.
A.I.Visly, director
general of the National
Library of Russia, s
upervisor of the “National
Digital Library” project at the
Russian State Library
Alexander Ivanovich Visly in his speech highlighted the changes taking place in the library sphere which had been prompted by two legal acts: “About changes in Federal Law “About libraries” concerning creation of a federal state information system ‘National Digital Library’” and “About legal deposits of documents” and problems arising with their application. Apart of that, the speech dealt with the following aspects of work of the NDL resource: support of work of the NDL distributed system for the participant libraries and questions of establishing volume and contents of the documents transferred to the NDL for libraries of the “obligatory participant” category.
The plenary meeting was continued by the following speeches: 
1. By Tatyana Alexandrovna Blinova (Russian State Library) with «Modern reader – needs and demands, and what it means for library’s client’s service”. There was shown the evolution of the modern reader, with all changes of their needs and demands. Meanwhile, the main destination of library remained fulfilment of information demands of its reader. In the modern times that destination acquired new aspects to be considered. The quality of the client’s service would also become important. It would help both to attract new readers and to keep the constant ones. Then, reformation of the library inside would be no less prominent. Automation of the internal processes, development of new forms of library work together with support to the traditional ones were all mentioned as inseparable parts of functioning of client’s service. Thus the RSL developed and implemented for their readers systems of remote enrolment to the library, of online order – making on the RSL website. Besides, time for realization of reader service had been shortened. Tatyana Alexandrovna concluded her speech mentioning that the secret of high quality of service was in providing individual approach to each reader; 
N. F. Afanasyeva,
Moscow Kremlin Museums
2. By Natalia Fedorovna Afanasyeva (Moscow Kremlin Museums) with “Digital collections in Moscow Kremlin Museums”. The main aim of any museum was to preserve, research and popularize museum objects and collections. Due to active implementation of information technologies, the Moscow Kremlin Museums had launched project “Collections Online”. The speaker described the development of the resource in its progress, principles of formation and replenishment of the electronic collections. The “Collections Online” project provided access to more museum objects than any excursion could afford, and attracted more visitors to the museum – both physical and virtual ones. 
E. L. Kudrina, Corporate
University of Autonomous
Non – Profit Organization
of Further Education
“CDIC – educational
programmes”
3. By Ekaterina Leonidovna Kudrina (Corporate University of Autonomous Non – Profit Organization of Further Education “CDIC – educational programmes”) with “Centre of Development of Interpersonal Communication and Education Programmes in the Age of Electronic Technologies”. The report was started by the statement that for the moment education meant not only studying subjects at formal educational establishments, but it would also mean a total process including up – bringing, education and self – education at each of the stages of human life. Being oriented at the latest educational trends of the 21st century, CDIC was working at creation of conditions for solving different socially important questions, this including realization of educational programmes. There had been organized ANPO APE “CDIC – educational programmes” and its corporate university, where attendees could learn how to develop personal and professional competences, which would in its turn contribute to optimization of educational processes at profile establishments; 
N. A. Timofeeva,
the Perm State Krai
Universal Library
named after A. M. Gorky
4. By Nataliia Arkadiyevna Timofeeva (The Perm State Krai Universal Library named after A. M. Gorky) with “Formation of electronic resources of the Perm region (Perm digital library): a current status, problems and prospects”. The speech was devoted to the electronic resource which had been developed in Perm region on the basis of the “Gorkovka” library with the support of establishments of education and culture. According to the speaker’s view, the “Perm Digital Library” project could only achieve prominent results on condition it was integrated into the Russian and international information networks. Another element of importance was established as the united search system implemented at the federal level; 

A. V. Kuzmin,
ALANIS Software Co. Ltd
5. By Andrey Valentinovich Kuzmin (ALANIS Software Co. Ltd) with “Automatic library stock scan processing. A case study of creation of a software solution in cooperation with the Russian State Library”. The main target of the majority of digitalization projects was seen by the speaker as producing a copy of the source (mostly there were digitalized old sources) containing the electronic text of the document with satisfactory – quality graphics. Andrey Valentinovich considered experiences and typical problems of processing scanned book copies produced when digitalizing collections of Russian libraries. Due to collaboration with the Russian State Library, the “ALANIS Software” company developed a product which would help any library, archives, etc. in solving numerous problems connected with preparation of scanned book images, with applying less hand work.
  
Awardees of the 2nd
All – Russian Contest of
Library Innovations
(left to right): E.N.Kovalenko,
I.V.Yurik, E.G.Smutneva
6. Within the framework of the plenary meeting there was held a specialized event of the Second All – Russian Contest of Library Innovations “Innovations in Libraries – Best Experiences of 2015”. The final report «Library Innovations: Promotion and Partnership (by Results of the Second All-Russian Contest)” was presented by Tatyana Yevgeniyevna Dmitrieva, head of the Financial and Economic Department of the Russian State Library. She gave details on the aim of the contest, on the results of the 2015 event and on the prospects. Each of the winners also presented their projects. Inna Victorovna Yurik, deputy library director of Belarusian National Technical University, spoke on “ProBNTU as a System of Promoting Scientific and Creative Potential of University”. Elena Nailevna Kovalenko, chief librarian of the Centralized Library System of Norilsk, reported her “Scientific and Technical Creativity of Youth in the Library”. Elena Grigoriyevna Smutneva, head of Coordination and Methodology Division of Novosibirsk Regional Library for Children, presented “Project "WikiSibiriaDa": Our response to the challenges of the times”. 
At the plenary meeting the audience could enjoy all in all 17 speeches. 
 
M. D. Rodionov,
Russian State Library
Continuing the work of the conference, 21 September 2016 there was organized a round – table discussion “National Digital Library”. The compere of the discussion was deputy director general on the National Digital Library of the Russian State Library Mikhail Davidovich Rodionov. The speeches were presented by the following participants:
1. Mikhail Davidovich Rodionov (Russian State Library) – “National Electronic Library as the Foundation for the Knowledge Space”. In the speech there were pointed out the main targets for the National Electronic Library to achieve (i.e. to infuse the knowledge space with both kinds of information, the basis one and the latest available which would reflect the modern tendencies of the development of science, technology and culture), and possible solutions for the relevant problems. The first step to be performed was to define the branches profile for the National Electronic Library (analogical to profiles for composing collections of traditional libraries). Then the speaker invited to create expert councils in different fields of knowledge in order to form lists of literature which would guide the filling of the collections of the National Electronic Library. Mikhail Davidovich concluded his speech reminding the audience that the National Electronic Library was destined to provide knowledge for the citizens of Russia, so it had to become a maximally open resource
 
O. N. Shorin,
National Library of Russia
2. Oleg Nikolayevich Shorin (National Library of Russia) – “Statistics of NDL work at NLR”. The speech was started by the description of the principles of work of the technological platform of NDL, with its advantages and drawbacks. As a plus of the platform there was pointed out the system of gathering of the statistics on the demand for the resources transferred into NDL possessed by the holding library (in that case it was NLR). The participants of the conference were demonstrated the methods of gathering statistics and the difference arising depending on the point of users’ access to the electronic resource (directly through the NDL portal, or through the website of the NLR); afterwards the results were analyzed; 
 
R. V. Bobrik,
Russian State Library
1. Ruslan Valeriyevich Bobrik (Russian State Library) – “Building up the direction of NEL development from the operator’s point”. The report reflected the scheme functioning for information cooperation of the operator and participants/users of the NEL. There were given details on the procedure of setting the connection for the electronic reading room, on the transferring and placing documents procedures, on the access provided in the end. Concluding his speech, Ruslan Valeriyevich formulated prospects for the National Electronic Library and presented the new version for the NEL, i.e. NEL 3.0; 
 
D. V. Ivanova,
Russian State Library
2. Diana Vassiliyevna Ivanova (Russian State Library) – “Legal aspects of works’ usage for the National Digital Library”. Ms. Ivanova began her speech by emphasizing that the development and usage of the objects of the National Digital Library had been carried out strictly in accordance with the demands of the Civil Code. The access to the documents was realized in accordance with the laws of the Russian Federation and Statute about NDL, and was provided free – of – charge for users. The NDL contained both, public heritage works (free usage) and Copyright works (on the basis of agreements with authors or right – owners). Diana Vassiliyevna pointed out that in order to fulfill the needs of the society in a somewhat broader access to cultural heritage it was necessary to introduce changes into the RF current legislation. Libraries and archives should acquire rights to provide open access for readers either of all the digitalized works, or of those ones representing scientific and educational importance on condition the mentioned above libraries and archives did not use those works for commercial purposes and they were NDL contributors. 
The themes chosen for the discussion turned out to be interesting for the participants. The discussion was marked as hot, with numerous urgent questions and extensive answers.
The second day of the conference was continued by the round – table discussion organized by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Its compere was the head of the Administrative department of management and monitoring service for clients of the RSL Nina Vladimirovna Avdeeva. There were presented the results of the work on the joint project by the Russian State Library, the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology, CC “Antiplagiat” and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. They were reflected in the following speeches:  
..Blinova,
Russian State Library
1. “Verifying results of the computer – aided evaluation of documents when forming referent collection Scientific Archives” by deputy head of the Department of support of access to digital resources, head of the Department of prospective development of the Russian State Library Tatyana Alexandrovna Blinova. There were described principles of development of the standard united digital collection of scientific works of quality entitled “Scientific Archives”. After that Tatyana Alexandrovna gave details on the methods of support and expert work over scientific papers carried out by the specialists of the RSL. In the end she presented the results of the probation of the information system for providing public access to the united digital quality – collection of sources of scientific works on the basis of the referent collection compared with the documents of the Digital Library of the RSL; 
Y. V. Chekhovich,
CC “Antiplagiat”
2. “Studying Structure of Plagiarisms in Russian Dissertations” by the executive director of CC “Antiplagiat” Yuri Victorovich Chekhovich. There were demonstrated the results of project “Scientific Archives” conducted in 2016  ordered by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, as well as methodology and algorithms of the research. The studied objects were plagiarisms revealed in almost 400 thousand full texts of dissertations by the automated means of the “Scientific Archives” system.
The event was concluded by discussions.
The cultural programme of the conference was no less interesting and deep than the scientific one. The participants could get acquainted with the capital cities of Finland, Sweden and Estonia. They learned a lot from the specially prepared tours around the cities. They walked around Helsinki, Stockholm and Tallinn, viewed their old parts, tried their national food, their eyes feasted on picturesque nature and admirable views. The participants of the conference visited national libraries of Finland, Sweden and Estonia where they got to know how their foreign colleagues worked.
 
National Library of
Finland, Rotund
Rotund inside
20 September 2016 the delegation of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” visited the National Library of Finland in Helsinki (former University Library; at the moment it was both, national and university library).The library had started its history in 1640, so the objects of its particular pride were considered old printed editions and manuscripts. The library accepted all its visitors free – of – charge, even those ones who were not its official readers. Anyone could enter the library when it worked and look it around, with its historical interiors, galleries, murals and shelves with old books. The only condition was to obey the rules of behavior of the library and to leave coats and rucksacks at the storage chamber. At the National Library of Finland visitors were allowed to make photos without flash. 
Professor Kai Ekholm,
the director of the National
Library of Finland
The director of the library, professor Kai Ekholm, was the first to meet the delegation of the “Digital Age of Culture” conference. In order to initiate the acquaintance, Dr.Ekholm prepared two presentations: about modern organization of the library, its collections and main directions of work with readers, and about the process of constructing the building of the library and its restoration. 
The first presentation was commented by Dr. Ekholm himself. He informed the audience that the library was regulated by its Charter, by library laws and legal deposit laws.  All the libraries in Finland functioned under Ministry of education. As the National Library of Finland was at the same time the library of the University of Helsinki, it cooperated with the Ministry of education in general areas of its development, and it cooperated with the University in the fields of services for staff and students.
Participants of “Digital
Age of Culture”
The National Library was managed by its director general, with the help of the administrator (subordinate to him) and subordinate directors of: Research Library, National Library Network, Centre of Preservation and Digitization.
In continuation of the speech, Dr. Ekholm stopped at the structure of the library. The director of the Administration was Dorrit Gustafsson, Liisa Savolainen was heading the Research Library, Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen was the director of the  National Library Network, while Pirjo Karppinen had been appointed head of the Centre of Preservation and Digitization.
RESEARCH LIBRARY
The department was responsible for packing the national heritage and its storage, it also supported and developed national regulations and descriptions, references and indices. The Research Library provided library services for the citizens of the state and for remote readers from all over the world on the Internet. The fields of research of the department were History, research in Russia and Western Europe.
NATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK
The department was responsible for strategic development of the network of general services and infrastructure of the National Library. It cooperated with library networks for providing equal and open access to information resources. The subdivision was dealing with digital library services and development of the efficiency of comfortable working environment, it also evaluated activity of other libraries.
CENTRE OF PRESERVATION AND DIGITIZATION
The Centre of Preservation and Digitization of the National Library digitized and preserved its collections: there were formed orders and received materials for digital collections. Beside that it offered high – quality services of microfilming and digitization for clients.
The shelves with new
acquisitions at the
Slavonic Library
While describing the National Library of Finland and its collections professor Ekholm emphasized that the mission of the library was to preserve cultural heritage of the nation. Its collections were considered the largest within Finland, and they counted over 6 million objects. They were all stored at approximately 115 km of shelves (apart from books there could be found records, ephemera, maps, sheet music, posters, manuscripts). The National Library of Finland was especially proud of its Slavonic Library, Cartographical Collection of A. E. Nordenskiöld, Library of Radziwiłł Family, Minority Collections from Russian Era, Library and Archive of Monrepos, Medieval Parchment Fragments Collection and Archives of Finnish Prominent Figures. These collections had been formed from the very beginning, and they reflected the development of printing in each historical period in Finland.  
The unique Slavonic Library included editions of 1809 – 1917, and it counted over 450 thousand objects. That was the ‘Russian period’, for Finland used to be a part of the Russian Empire as autonomous Great Princedom of Finland and it received its own legal deposit copies of every printed book published in Russia. Due to numerous acquisitions from Russia, the National Library of Finland (before 1924 – the Helsinki University Library) managed to form one of the largest collections of pre – revolutionary literature in Russian and in other languages of the nationalities of the Russian Empire. Even for that time all those books were widely used by researchers all over the world. 
Finland used to be a Catholic country, so the National Library of Finland possessed a huge number of unique medieval parchments and their fragments which represented most valuable and rare samples of scriptures of the Catholic Church.
The “Archives of Finnish Prominent Figures” collection would be interesting for readers. It was constantly replenished by the materials presented to the library as gifts. 
Participants of the
“Digital Age of Culture” c
onference at the General
Reading Room of the
National Library of Finland
The director of the National Library was sorry to say that not all of the valuable documents from the collections of the library had been digitized. The number of books and manuscripts waiting for digitization remained considerable, so this type of work was carried out incessantly.
The statistics concerning legal deposits acquisition of the years of 2014 and 2015 (monographs, maps, scores, etc.) was represented in the scheme. Some numbers were obviously raising. Apart of that there was demonstrated the scheme of objects with the expired Copyright (newspapers, journals, dissertation theses, maps, manuscripts, etc.), and diagram “Acquisition of Monographs” in the following spheres: History, Literature, Philosophy, Russian Studies, Music Studies, etc. 
In the end professor Ekholm revealed the strategy of the National Library of Finland for 2016-2020. As main directions for the development there were chosen the following ones: raising accessibility of digital services for readers, broadening the list of services, supporting the digitalization of the society, creation of conditions for research and learning by broadening digital services for research projects and groups. 
Victoria Kurkina,
representative of the Slavonic
Library of the National
Library of Finland
The second presentation was devoted to the library building. It was commented upon by the representative of the Slavonic Library of the National Library of Finland Victoria Kurkina. The building of the National Library of Finland had been constructed by order of Russian Tzar Alexander I. He ordered the project to German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, and he chose the project he had liked best. In the year of  1837 the building process was started, and it was over by the year of 1845. The library was located in the centre of the city, directly in front of the main building of the University of Helsinki. 
The first large restoration took place in 1880 – 1881. The newer extension Rotunda dated to 1903. The pilasters of the Rotund were decorated with the sculptural reliefs of the allegories to different branches of knowledge (History, Philosophy, Law, Fine Arts, Physics, Medicine, Theology, Astronomy, etc.) performed by a well – known Finnish sculptor Valter Runeberg. Finally the Rotund was accomplished in 1907. 
Significant overhauls of the library building were carried out in 1954 – 1957 and 1977 – 1985. The largest renovation was initiated in 2013 and only finished by 2016. Victoria gave details on restoration works and challenges they had to face in connection with that. 
Handing gift editions
from the Russian State
Library (left to right): A.I.Visly,
Kai Ekholm
The participants of the conference thanked the speakers for informative reports. As souvenirs, the director general of the National Library of Russia transferred to the National Library of Finland the albums on the Russian State Library, the editions by V.V.Nazarevsky “History of Moscow” and the information materials of the 15th Scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”. 
Afterwards, the representatives of the library organized for the delegates an excursion around the main building of the National Library of Finland.
Point of readers’ registration
The delegation visited the General Reading Room, Periodicals Room and Slavonic Library. They studied the rules of using the library and the services provided to the readers. The librarians explained how collections were composed. The National Library of Finland would accept 5 printed legal deposit copies of everything. One of the copies remained inside the library, the four other ones were sent to other subordinate libraries (thus the distribution function was carried out). 
Reader’s computer workplace
The librarians demonstrated reader’s computer workplaces in reading rooms, then they explained how the editions were delivered to readers with the help of the telelift. Access to the Internet was free from over 200 reader’s computer workplaces. A bit later the audience were told how to enroll at the National Library of Finland. 
Answering the delegates’ questions, the representatives of the library told that server hardware was located outside the library building, the same were the things with the Digitization Centre. 
Point for copying
documents by readers
themselves
The main principle of library’s work was to encourage reader’s individual work with the collections and computers. Over 250 thousand visitors a year (80 % of them were students and university teachers and lecturers) explored the library resources. Despite the total accessibility of the library collections, researches were in priority. Books could be borrowed for reading at home (frequently demanded editions for no longer than 4 weeks, les popular for 6 months). Of course, restrictions existed. Readers could only access editions from the Finnish and Slavonic collections dated 1960 and earlier, and also periodicals of 1900 (and earlier) inside reading rooms; a specialized reading room was used for work with rare books. 
The library offered its readers a possibility to make copies of documents by readers themselves. They used magnet payment cards.  Interlibrary subscription was also charged. The service was provided on the fax, by post and telephone. The librarians were solving the problem of broadening Internet service.
A matter of importance for Finnish and other modern Western libraries remained acquisition and preservation of electronic legal deposits. The National Library of Finland studied the problem themselves and succeeded in that, it would as well cooperate with other world libraries in this sphere. Another task considered ever essential was enlarging volumes of acquisitions of traditional printed editions.
In conclusion the participants of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” thanked the representatives of the library for the interesting and informative excursion. 
The National Library of Finland is open Monday to Thursday 9:00 a.m. – 06:00 p.m., Fridays and Saturdays 9:00 a.m. – 04:00 p.m. (in July Saturday is a day - off); closed on Sundays. 
The official website of the National Library of Finland: www.kansalliskirjasto.fi.
 
National Library of Sweden
(Kungliga biblioteket)
The official visit to the National Library of Sweden was paid by the participants of the “Digital Age of Culture” conference 21 September 2016. Kungliga biblioteket, or “KB” (in Swedish), was located in Humlegården in central Stockholm. In 1661 the first legal deposit legislation had been passed, ensuring that the better part of all publications produced in Sweden were to be gathered centrally. The roots of what we knew as the National Library went back to the days of King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. The king had  collected books on a variety of subjects including history, science, and theology, as well as maps. The collections were expanded by Eric XIV, Johan III, and Charles IX and kept in the palace known as Tre Kronor (The Three Crowns). In 1697 however the fire destroyed both, the building and the majority of the books it contained. In December/ January 1877/1878 the library moved to the building in Humlegården which had been designed by Gustaf Dahl and built using cast iron. Two wings were added in 1926-27.
The national library was a state agency under Ministry of Education and Research.
Delegation of the “Digital
Age of Culture” conference.
Left to right: A.I. Visly,
Lars Ilshammar
The delegation of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” was accepted by deputy director general on science Mr Lars Ilshammar. He apologized to the delegates for National Librarian Gunilla Herdenberg could not greet them herself because she had left for Göteborg for the international book exhibition and did not return for the moment. Still she left her kind greeting words and wished the delegates to enjoy their excursion.
The acquaintance with the library began with presentations on history, structure and work of the modern library. 
Lars Ilshammar,
deputy director general
on science (National Library
of Sweden)
The first to speak was Lars Ilshammar. He quoted the motto of the library (“Contribute to research and to a democratic society”) and read out the clause from “Act on Libraries” (“Bibliotekslag” 2013:801): “Libraries in the public library system shall work for the democratic development  of society by contributing to the transfer of knowledge and the free formation of opinion. Libraries in the public library system shall promote the position of literature and interest in learning, awareness, education and research as well as cultural activities in general. Libraries shall be accessible to everyone”.
Then Lars Ilshammar emphasized that the main task of the National Library of Sweden was to collect and provide access to physical and digital media in order to develop research activity and to perfect the society. In addition they oversaw national coordination and development of the Swedish library sector. As the five key fields of activity Mr Ilshammar counted collection, preservation, description, providing access and collaboration over national coordination and development. 
Reading room of the
National Library of Sweden
Then there followed a detailed report on the history of the library with its milestones. The year of 1483 had witnessed “Dialogus creaturarum”, which was the first book to be printed in Sweden. In 1500s, Wasa king’s book collections were established as a royal library. The first known catalogue of royal books was dated 1568. In 1661 a decree was issued requiring submission of one copy of all printed items to the royal cabinet prior to publication (legal deposit). The 1697 fire at royal palace Tre Kronor (“Three Crowns”) destroyed three – quarters of all books, and in 1768 the royal book collections were relocated to the new palace. In 1877 the royal library was appointed an independent agency and formally designated as the National Library of Sweden. In 1972 the National Union Catalogue was launched. And in 1979 the new legal deposit legislature included sound and moving images. In 1997 two huge underground storage facilities were constructed in Humlegården. In 2009 the National Library and the National Archive of Recorded Sound and Moving Images merged, and in 2011 the National Library was assigned responsibility for the Archival Film Collections in Grångesberg. In 2015 a new task of national coordination and development in collaboration with Swedish library sector was set. 
L.Ilshammar’s presentation,
page with the structure
of the National Library
of Sweden
In course of his speech on the National Library, Lars Ilshammar described its structure. Under the guidance of Gunilla Herdenberg, national librarian, there were deputy national librarian Lars Ilshammar and five departments: Physical Collections Department, Digital Collections Department, Public Programmes Department, Information Systems Department and Corporate Services Department. Miriam Nauri was the head of the Physical Collections Department, Håkan Adenkrantz was the head of the Digital Collections Department, Christina Jönsson Adrial was the head of the Public Programmes Department, Ingemar Tun was the head of the Information Systems Department, while the Corporate Services Department was headed by Asa Edström.
PHYSICAL COLLECTIONS DEPARTMENT
The department was responsible for gathering and describing materials, it received legal deposits. It supervised the development of the collections of physical documents. It also preserved the physical collections of the National Library of Sweden.
DIGITAL COLLECTIONS DEPARTMENT
The department was responsible for gathering, describing and preserving audiovisual legal deposits, digital legal deposits and legal deposits of newspapers. It developed collections of mass media, digital media, newspapers and it would realize digitization programmes of the National Library.
PUBLIC PROGRAMMES DEPARTMENT
The department was responsible for information and educational programmes with target groups of users of the agency of the National Library. This work suggested physical and electronic support and development of knowledge, as well as communications. It supervised national review, collaboration and development works within the framework of library sector, this including library statistics around the country.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT
The department was responsible for systems, Internet, services of development for all the systems of the National Library and informational services. It was also dealing with management and infrastructure for all these spheres. It coordinated inter – agency processes, such as metadata exchange, and in addition it supervised data exchange, this including procurement, telephone services and storage devices.
CORPORATE SERVICES DEPARTMENT
L.Ilshammar’s presentation,
page with the buildings
of the National Library
of Sweden
The department supervised the inside – management at the due level and accountability at the library: it carried out general quality management and insured library’s work in compliance with the current laws and rules. It supported other departments of the National Library in such spheres as operations management, finances and procurement, legal advising, document management, internal services management, building and security management.
KB occupied five buildings located in different cities of Sweden. The central building (Humlegården) was in Stockholm, the Archival Films were in in Grångesberg, Garnisonen – in Stockholm, Rogge Library – in Strängnäs, and Statens biblioteksdepå was in Bålsta.
The year of 2015 witnessed increase of some numbers important for library life (as compared to the relevant data for 2014). Lars Ilshammar said that the total number of personnel of the library counted 305 people (compared to 296 of 2014), financing would also be raised (for it got 378 mln SEK compared to 371 mln SEK), the volume of the stored data achieved figures of 12 Pb (compared to 10 Pb). Still the age of the staff employed remained at the same level ( 49 years old), and the number of loans of printed materials even decreased (from 99 thousand to 88 thousand objects) , as well as the number of the index of access to fulltext databases (from 49 thousand of 2014 to 33 thousand of 2015). 
Then, Lars Ilshammar proceeded to the collections of the National Library of Sweden. They were huge and diverse, they occupied over 170 km of shelving and included 16 mln hours  of sound and moving images. KB stored almost everything – books, newspapers, microfilms, posters, manuscripts, maps and images, printed music, etc. KB was proud of its personal archives (of Swedish well – known writer Astrid Lindgren, Unesco Memory of the World), and of “Codex gigas” (more known as the “Devil’s Bible”). 
90 TV-channels were downloaded and stored each moment around the clock by the staff of the library. About 16 million recorded hours of radio, TV and music were contained at the KB for the moment. The year of 2015 counted approximately 12 PB (petabyte) stored data. E-deposit and web harvesting (Kulturarw3), however, required constantly increased storage capacity and additional financing as well.
Lars Björk, digitization
coordinator of the
National Library of Sweden
In conclusion Lars Ilshammar shared his ideas about the future of the library by the year of 2025, for he saw it as “society’s open space – a world where information made a difference”. 
Afterwards the relay of acquaintance with the National Library of Sweden was headed by Lars Björk, digitization coordinator of KB. He quoted different dictionaries in defining what a library was. Traditionally a library meant a “ collection of books, public or private; room or building where these are kept; similar collection of films, records, computer routines, etc. or place where they are kept”. However modern libraries looked more like hybrids of analogue and digital libraries. Commenting the scheme, Mr Björk demonstrated how the information in different formats was encoded, then placed into digital repository, and then, formed into a single programme, it was made available on reader’s demand from their telephone, pad or computer. There had been established a special organization which dealt with encoding directly for the National Library of Sweden. Lars showed that KB provided main digitization principles for other organizations. The principles were documented, and they contained the information for organizations of how to carry out the digitization of their own in order to make their documents enter the digital collections of the National Library of Sweden in future (four models had been worked out). The digitization process involved not only machine - work (KB possessed even a special robot), but hand work as well. Basically there were invited external organizations and professional photographers. 
The digital collection of the library was enormous, and all possible measures were taken to leave it accessible by everyone. Still, there were no direct implications of what could be made accessible, and what had to remain in the restricted use (the main problem remained old documents dated by 15-16 centuries). In conclusion Lars Björk expressed his hope that in the future the word “digital” would have no meaning, for everything would be digital by default.
Answering the question how the materials were delivered from the repository to readers on their demand, Mr. Björk answered that it was librarians’ task to elevate them from the repository. That was the reason why the staff of KB was so numerous. Another question was about information centres of the library. As it turned out, not all of them were located inside the library. One of such centres was down at the repository, while the other one was even beyond Stockholm. 
Handing gift editions from
the Russian State Library
(left to right): Lars Björk,
Lars Ilshammar and A.I.Visly
As souvenirs, the director general of the National Library of Russia transferred to the National Library of Sweden the albums on the Russian State Library, the editions by V.V.Nazarevsky “History of Moscow” and the information materials of the 15th Scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”. 
The repository of KB was located at two large underground caverns. The main collection was 40 metres under the ground (for the bombing threat), and there was no opportunity to get there, thus the delegates of the “Digital Age of Culture” conference had to look around only the Main Reading Room of the library. Anyone was allowed to use National Library services, but people had to be at least 18 to request and order materials from the collections. Items in the Swedish collection could not be borrowed for home use and had to be read in one of the reading rooms.
In conclusion, the participants of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” thanked the representatives of KB for their interesting speeches and excursion. Some of the delegates enrolled at the National Library of Sweden and became its official readers. 
The National Library of Sweden is open: 1st January – 31st May; 1st September – 31st December. Monday - Thursday 9:00 a.m. – 07:00 p.m., Friday 9:00 a.m. – 06:00 p.m., Saturday 11:00 a.m. – 03:00 p.m. (Day off on Sunday). 
The official website of the National Library of Sweden: http://www.kb.se/english/.
 
At the Royal Palace
During their time in Sweden there was organized an excursion to the Royal Palace (Kungliga slottet) for the participants of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”, where they managed to walk around luxurious halls and view expositions.
 
National Library of Estonia
22 September 2016, the delegation of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” visited the National Library of Estonia. The National Library of Estonia (est. Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu) was a largest research establishment of Estonia. The library was located in the modern building in the centre of Tallinn at the crossroad of the Endla Street and Tõnismägi Street. 
Essentially, the National Library of Estonia was the national memory storage and at the same time a modern centre of knowledge which was a part of the European scientific, cultural and informational space.
The activity of libraries of Estonia was regulated by the following laws: Public Libraries Law, Legal Deposit Law and the National Library of Estonia Act. All the libraries of Estonia were cooperating closely. The main target any library service was pointed at was to make different materials and information available.
The delegates of the
Digital Age of Culture”
conference
The main task of the National Library of Estonia as a social and legal establishment was to collect information on publications released in Estonia or connected with them, their preservation and providing access to them. It was also to develop library business and relevant spheres in science, it had as well to remain parliamentary and research library at the same time. The National Library of Estonia coordinated and managed Estonian libraries and Centre of Culture. The National Library of Estonia was financed from the state budget on the basis of the agreement with the Ministry of Culture.
Stained glass window
of the National Library
of Estonia (from outside views)
Stained glass window
of the National Library
of Estonia (from inside views)
The delegates of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” was met heartily by the senior researcher of the Department of Collections of the National Library Larisa Petina. She was a guide for the excursion around the building. 
Interior of the National
Library of Estonia
A long – tongued woman
The guests pointed out that the inner space of the library had been designed as a Medieval castle, which was a favourite architectural style among the Estonian people. Limestone chosen as the material fit well the style of the building. Strict and somewhat severe interiors were decorated with paintings, tapestry and stained glass. Numerous sculptures of mythical beings (a creature with the body of a rat and a man’s head, a long – tongued woman with signs of the department directions, a head of a man plunging slowly into a book, etc.) amused visitors with their originality. 
The National Library of Estonia had a tradition to organize exhibitions devoted to different library collections, Estonian cultural heritage in the motherland and abroad, and also to the foreign culture in Estonia. A permanent exposition was the gallery of works by Eduard Wiiralt (Viiralt), the same was with the gallery of state awards of Estonia and the exhibition devoted to the history of the National Library of Estonia. Then, the library would often host exhibitions of works by Estonian artists.
An exposition
Afterwards there was the narration about the history of the building of the National Library and of its collections.  
The history of the National Library of Estonia was closely connected with the history of establishment of Estonia as a nation. Started in 1918, the library had changed several names. At first it was the State Library, in the year of 1935 it was renamed as the State Library of Estonian USR, and in 1953 it acquired name of the Estonian writer Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald. 
The present name (National Library of Estonia) was assigned to the library in 1988. Later on, in the year of 1989 there was reestablished its former status of a parliamentary library, and even till the present moment it was responsible for satisfying informational demands of the Parliament and the Government of the state. 
On 21 December 1918, the Provisional Government of the Estonian Republic had taken the decision to establish the State Library. The primary collection of the library was about 2000 titles necessary for lawmaking and government. The library was situated in two small rooms of Toompea Castle, the Parliament building. Since 1919, the collections of the library were complemented with legal deposits from the territory of Estonia. Having established a rather impressive volume collection by 1930, the library opened its doors for everyone. In the soviet period the collections of the library acquired a lot of editions from all over the Union, still a part of the pre – Soviet collection was  placed into restricted access. The modern times counted over 3,5 mln items stored within the National Library building, the majority of which were books. 
National Library
of Estonia, interiors
In 2016 the library could boast of 47 thousand readers. Estonian people would predominate among them, for the amount of available information in Estonian was really small on the Internet. Russians would also come around; as a rule, they were elderly people. They made one fourth of the total number of readers. Library was accessible for school children, too. Anyone over 16 could enroll and acquire the "ID- card" (library card). From the age of 18 however readers were allowed to use the lending service. Annually the library was visited by approximately 150 thousand readers, while its website counted  600 thousand users a year.
Larisa Petina pointed out that the collections of the National Library of Estonia concentrated the majority of the existing documents in the Estonian language and of different materials published in Estonia and about Estonia. Thus, the library was carrying out the memorial function in full measure.
Still for the moment the task of primary importance was the development of electronic services and providing open access to digital collections. Over 80 % Estonian books had already been introduced into the digital catalogue. Digital archives contained approximately 87 thousand documents, 12 thousand of which were in the Estonian language. Estonian newspapers were also digitized. 
Scheme of the National
Library of Estonia
The structure of the building of the National Library turned out to be interesting, too. The entrance to the building was at the second – floor level, where book exhibitions, shops, cafes, cloakroom and Enrolment department were located. From the second and up to the sixth floor there were situated branch reading rooms and administration of the library. The two lower floors were designed for book repository with capacity of 10 mln volumes. 
Exhibition gallery
The modern multi – functional building of the library was especially prominent by its architecture. It had been built in 1993. The author of the project was Estonian architect Raine Karp. This research establishment would often hold thematic conferences and meetings with writers. The library contained several halls of overall capacity of 600 people.
The library could boast of five galleries located at different levels. They were the Main Exhibition Room, the Foyer Gallery, the Exhibition Room with the Collection of Rarities, the gallery and exhibition room at the fifth floor. Each of the galleries offered different facilities for holding expositions.  
A reading room of the
National Library of Estonia
With the support of embassies of different states, at the library there had been started specialized reading rooms: the German one, the Swiss one and the Austrian one. Different international organizations had their agencies over there: the European Union, the United Nations Organization, the International Monetary Fund, The court of justice of the European communities, etc. 
Exhibition of state
awards of Estonia
Rare Book Collection
Department
With a pure interest the delegates of the conference walked around the reading rooms of the National Library, viewed the exhibition of state awards of Estonia and paused at the Department of Rare Book Collection, where they were shown the rare editions in Russian published during the tsarist period of Russian history. 
The questions asked by the delegates were answered in full and with many details. How long did it take to deliver the book from the repository to the reader? Fifteen minutes. Still it used to be up to the whole working day.  For book delivery there had been developed a specialized elevator (by Sukhanov’s design bureau). It was a bit decrepit however in use. What about paper catalogue? At the National Library of Estonia the catalogue was digital. In case the full text of a book existed in the digital format, the shelf with the book was marked by a special card with the description in it. 
Lack of time prevented the delegation’s excursion to the book repository. 
Book elevator
In conclusion Ms Tatyana Palav demonstrated and commented upon Christine Rodd’s presentation “National Library of Estonia – Digital Collections and Services”. She spoke on the functions performed by the National Library and on the organization of readers’ service. 
The National Library of Estonia realized reader’s enrolment either physically (by a private visit) or on the Internet, the procedure was carried out free – of – charge. The only restriction was the prohibition for readers under 16 to borrow books for reading at home.
Work with readers was organized with maximal usage of remote services, which made it of a better quality. Readers could enroll on the Internet, they could ask a question, mail it to the library and receive the answer within 24 hours. Readers could access online catalogue ESTER which was common for all the libraries participating in the consortium of Estonian libraries (ELNET) and contained all the information on the documents collected and stored by those libraries. There was also information on the documents of university and specialized libraries. All the 16 libraries supporting the work of the catalogue used the integrated library software Sierra/Millenium.
For readers’ search there was also available National Bibliography of Estonia, Database of Estonian Articles (ISE) which included collections “Estonian Law Bibliography”, “Presidents of Estonia” and “Parliamentarism”.
The digital library contained Digital Archives DIGAR (online publications, digitized copies of books, journals, maps, music scores, photos, postcards); Archives of Estonian Newspapers DIGAR (Internet newspapers and digital copies of newspapers published in Estonia or in the Estonian language abroad); Web – Archives of Estonia (digital archives of websites important for cultural development of the state).
Authorization at the system of the National Library of Estonia enabled readers to search for articles in foreign languages among over two hundred databases and save search settings and search results at their own “Electronic book shelf” at their Private Office. There was also opened access to academic databases in foreign languages (licensed databases) with more than 70 thousand electronic journals and over 60 thousand electronic books.
Continuing her speech, Tatyana Palav reported on the digitalized books on project “E – Books on Demand (EOD)”. The motto of the EOD is “To inspire the old book with the new life!”. The project aimed at popularization and organization of access to the valuable documents of the 16-20th centuries stored at European libraries, which were not Copyright and which could only be accessed at reading rooms due to their age. On user’s request the library’s catalogue digitalized the necessary edition and mailed it to the addressee on the EDO network. The EDO project saved money (for it did not require postal expenses), it gave opportunity to look through authentic texts from user’s mobile devices, the sources available by this project could be formed into user’s own unique collections; the received materials could be printed, be always at hands, be read and scaled, and copied, and pasted, and whatever. The procedure was simple and required three steps – to find in the electronic catalogue, to fill in the form and to receive the conditions of the service. The fulfillment of the request could be followed on the personal page online. The library holding the source billed the user client. The service had to be paid either by a bank card, or directly at the library. The payment carried out, user could download the EDO ebook, or save it to the external storage media. In case the electronic version had been requested on CD ROM or DVD with posting to the definite address, postal expenses would also be included. 
Handing gift editions
from the Russian State
From left to right:
Library Nina Avdeeva,
Tatyana Palav
The speech over, the head of the Administrative department of management and monitoring service for clients of the Russian State Library Nina Vladimirovna Avdeeva thanked her Estonian colleagues for the hearty meeting and gifted them with the album on the Russian State Library, the editions by V.V.Nazarevsky “History of Moscow” and the information materials of the 15th Scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture”. 
At the National Library the director general of the National Library of Russia Alexander Ivanovich Visly met the director general of the National Library of Estonia Janne Andreso. 
Reading room of the
National Library of Estonia
The participants of the 15th International scientific and practical conference “Digital Age of Culture” thanked the representatives of the National Library of Estonia for the excursion and marked that the information they had got was interesting because it described not only work of a singular library, but the general policy of libraries in Estonia. The ideology of open access could be traced in every detail – in placing large collections and those ones of greater demand in open access, in the abundance of diverse channels of access to digital archives of libraries, in application of automated technologies, etc. Still, the main feature remained in attitude towards readers, in sensitivity towards their demands. Readers felt comfortable at the library, and that was the matter of primary importance.
The National Library of Estonia is open Monday to Friday 10:00 a.m. – 08:00 p.m., Saturday 12:00 – 07:00 p.m. (closed on Sundays). The website of the library: http://www.nlib.ee/en
The experience of the “Digital Age of Culture” conference and the achieved results inspire hopes that the electronic future of the Russian science and culture should remain at the same high and respectable level due to close and fruitful collaboration of different establishments of culture, science and education with leading IT companies. And for the Russian society, cultural heritage would be preserved and augmented, and would become broadly and objectively accessible.
The programme of the conference is available on http://www.elvek.ru/programma_konferencii/.
The video and information materials of the conference are available on the official website of the Russian Association of Digital Libraries http://www.aselibrary.ru/index.html.