Frequently asked questions


1. Why the information data of the computer test cannot be considered without any other steps?

The system finds different coincident fragments in the documents, and among them there can be not only potential plagiarisms but also quotations and commonly use word combinations. If the information data of the primary automated test are considered without any other steps in this analysis to be made, we shall get the facts of inadequate lowering of the level of text authenticity.


2. Which is the allowed volume (in percent) of the borrowed text, of the authentic text, of the quoted text and of self-quotations? 

For the moment there do not exist any qualitative restrictions for the volumes of the borrowed text, of the authentic text, of the quoted text and of self-quotations. 


3. Are the low-volume borrowings really considered?

The incorrect borrowings of even low volumes (less than of 1%) can be Copyright violating. 


4. What is the expert evaluation of authenticity of research texts needed for?

Systems reveal coincident places within the tested document with respect to those ones belonging the collection of sources, but they would not specify their nature. Numerous fragments happen to turn out correct borrowings or widely-used expressions and terms. Considering the information data of the computer report on the primary test without excluding the like fragments would lead to the facts of inadequate lowering of the level of text authenticity.


5. Does the computer check guarantee the 100% exactness and objectivity of the information data?

No, it does not. Any automated system reveals coincident fragments of different types within the tested documents and the collection of sources, and not all of them are plagiarisms. Only an expert specialist is able to distinguish between plagiarisms and borrowings of other kinds. 


6. How can it be that the system considers commonly used word combinations and terms to be plagiaristic?

This is the common phenomenon for all the modern software products. And that is why any computer report needs expert verification.


7. What is «an authentic text»?

Within the framework of the plagiarism tests carried out at the RSL, that is a text which does not contain any plagiarisms with respect to the texts of the sources against which the tests are realized.


8. How to arrange quotations correctly if I do not want them to be considered plagiarisms?

The quotations are to have references and links to them. Bibliographic descriptions should contain true information about the sources used in compliance with the accepted arrangement standards. You are welcome to view details in section «Reference materials” and “Articles and other thematic materials».


9. Should the quotations from legal documents be considered borrowings?

Texts of laws and other legal documents are not copyright, still the quotation rules should be followed when dealing with them. In case those rules are broken or left aside, such quotations turn to be plagiarisms. 


10. Is a paraphrase plagiarism?

A paraphrase (retelling) can be plagiarism if it does not have any references to its source. 


11. What is a "paraphrase"?

For the moment the “paraphrase” term is defined by linguists in different ways. Sometimes it would mean the same with “rephrasing” (expressing the same idea with different words, or transferring the idea into a different situation) and “periphrasis” (expressing the meaning by a description). All the aforementioned concepts have in common the basic idea of transforming the initial variant of the sentence. 


12. What is a «compilation»?

This is the results of other people’s thoughts and research being combined without independent work over the sources by its author. 


13. How to evaluate the correctness of the borrowed fragment if the essential meaning of the text is preserved and its wording differs from the source? 

The degree of correctness of the borrowed fragment (irrespective of its difference in form from the text of the source) is established on the basis of the fact of presence/absence of references and bibliographic descriptions. 


14. What about self-quotation in dissertation theses? Is that allowable?

Clause 14 of Decree # 842 dated by 24 September 2013 “ O poryadke prisuzhdeniya uchenykh stepenei” (“About Order of Assignment of Scientific Degrees”) says that “When using in their dissertation thesis results of their previous research work performed by themselves or in co-authorship, the degree applicant is to highlight that condition in their dissertation thesis”. Thus self-quoting is allowable if you arrange your references and quotation marks correctly.


15. What about borrowings from publications performed in co-authorship? Will they be considered plagiaristic?

You are welcome to use your previously created works, be they your own ones or published in co-authorship. In case you quote and give all the necessary links and references, and bibliographic descriptions as they should be, such quotations will not be considered plagiarisms.